What are cognitive biases (a small continuation of the previous article)?
Last week I spoke to you about emotional regulation, today we are going to look at cognitive biases. This article is therefore in correlation with the previous one.
A cognitive bias is a quick and intuitive way to make judgments or decisions. It also has to do with self-esteem.
There is for example the effect of notoriety which could be defined by the perception of a person, by the opinion we have of one of his characteristics. The tendency to take into consideration only information that confirms what we think of a person or a situation is a cognitive bias (thinking only with one’s system 1).
Overconfidence is also part of this bias (overestimating one’s abilities) as is negativity bias (giving more weight to negative experiences than positive ones).
Making judgements based on a few things without further research or reflection. This is similar to overconfidence. Just as much as preferring to let it go.
There is also what I would call the « ass-kissing » aspect: making believe that many people agree with what you say. Like the one I call « believing oneself in the land of teddy bears » which is a tendency to believe that everything is beautiful, everything is right.
There is also the Dunning-Kruger effect, which is partly akin to overconfidence as well, because the less competent overestimate themselves and the more competent often tend to underestimate themselves.
There is also what I call the sheep effect when the tendency is to want to think and act like others in order to fit in.
There are many others such as the all-or-nothing principle. If things don’t go as planned, then it’s a failure. The fact that, somehow, saying « I’ll never get there » is also a great lack of self-confidence. You only see the negative side of things. Or even sometimes we turn the positive into a negative. We imagine the worst-case scenarios and there are many more.
Everyone without exception has some cognitive bias that comes out, it’s inevitable. In these cases, you have to know how to weigh things up and then you turn on your system 2.